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NATURAL HERITAGE

THE NATURAL COMMUNITIES OF VIRGINIA
CLASSIFICATION OF ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITY GROUPS


Second Approximation (Version 2.6)
Information current as of July, 2013



LITERATURE CITED AND ADDITIONAL REFERENCES

This section includes a partial list of published literature on Virginia vegetation and related topics; unpublished technical reports and academic studies concerning Virginia vegetation; and general references cited in the introduction and glossary.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

Abrams, M.D. 1992. Fire and the development of oak forests. BioScience 42: 346-353.

Abrams, M.D. 1998. The red maple paradox. BioScience 48: 355-364.

Abrams, M. D. and C.A. Copenheaver. 1999. Temporal variation in species recruitment and dendroecology of an old-growth white oak forest in the Virginia Piedmont, USA. Forest Ecol. and Managem. 124: 275-284.

Abrams, M.D., D.A. Orwig, and M.J. Dockry. 1997. Dendroecology and successional status of two contrasting old-growth oak forests in the Blue Ridge Mountains, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 27: 994-1002.

Adams, H.S. 1991. High elevation coniferous forests in Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science: 42:391-9.

Adams, H.S. and S.L Stephenson. 1983. A description of the vegetation on the south slopes of Peters Mountain, southwestern Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110: 18-22.

Adams, H.S., S.L. Stephenson, S. Ware, and M. Schnittler. 2003. Forests of the Central and Southern Appalachians and eastern Virginia having beech as a major component. Castanea 68: 222-231.

Agrawal, A. and S.L. Stephenson. 1995. Recent successional changes in a former chestnut-dominated forest in southwestern Virginia. Castanea 60: 107-113.

Allaby, M. 1990. A dictionary of ecology (second edition). Oxford University Press, New York. 440 pp.

Allard, H.A. 1942. Lack of available phosphorus preventing normal succession on small areas on Bull Run Mountain in Virginia. Ecology 23: 345-353.

Allard, H.A. 1946. Shale barren associations on Massanutten Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 11: 71-124.

Allard, H.A. and E.C. Leonard. 1943. The vegetation and floristics of Bull Run Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 8: 1-64.

Allard, H.A. and E.C. Leonard. 1962. List of vascular plants of the Northern Triassic area of Virginia. Castanea 27: 1-56.

Ahnert, F. 1960. Estuarine meanders in the Chesapeake Bay area. The Geographical Review 50: 340-401.

Allen, R.E., ed. 1990. The concise Oxford dictionary of current English. Eighth edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1454 pp.

Anderson, M.L., P. Bourgeron, M.T. Bryer, R. Crawford, L. Engelking, D. Faber-Langendoen, M. Gallyoun, K. Goodin, D.H. Grossman, S. Landaal, K. Metzler, K.D. Patterson, M. Pyne, M. Reid, L. Sneddon, and A.S. Weakley. 1998. International classification of ecological communities: terrestrial vegetation of the United States. Volume II. The national vegetation classification system: list of types. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 501 pp.

Artz, L. and M. Krouse. 1967. A Massanutten muskeg. Castanea: 32: 190-1.

Bailey, C.M. and S. Ware. 1990. Red spruce forests of Highland County, Virginia: biogeographical considerations. Castanea 55: 245-258.

Baker, H.L. 1925. The forests of Lee County, Virginia. Virginia Geological Survey: Bulletin 26: 179-207.

Barbour, MG., J.H. Burk, and W.D. Pitts. 1987. Terrestrial plant ecology. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Inc., Menlo Park, CA. 634 pp.

Bates, R.L. and J.A. Jackson (eds.). 1984. Dictionary of geological terms. Third Edition. Anchor Books, Doubleday, New York. 571.

Belden, A., Jr. 1998. The vascular flora of newly discovered granite flatrocks in Virginia's southern Piedmont. Banisteria 11: 3-18.

Berg, J.D. 1974. Vegetation and succession on Piedmont granitic outcrops of Virginia. Unpublished master's thesis. Department of Biology, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia.

Binns, S.J. 1980. An interphysiographic analysis of herb and shrub vegetation of Virginia forests. Unpublished master's thesis. Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia.

Blackman, D. and S. Ware. 1982. Soil moisture and the distribution of Quercus prinus and Quercus rubra. Castanea 47: 360-367.

Braun, E.L. 1950. Deciduous forests of eastern North America. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. 596 pp.

Braunschweig, S.H., E.T. Nilsen, and T.F. Wieboldt. 1999. The mid-Appalachian shale barrens. Pages 83-98 in R.C. Anderson, J.S. Fralish, and J.M. Baskin. Savannas, barrens, and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, NY.

Brown, H. 2000. Wildland burning by American Indians in Virginia. Fire Management Today 60:3. USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C.

Carr, L.G. 1939. Some notes on the ecology of plants of Magnolia Swamp, Augusta County, Virginia. Claytonia 5: 37-46.

Chappell, D. 1972. Vegetational study of Mann's Bog. Jeffersonia 6: 1-3.

Clampitt, C.A. 1991. The upland plant communities of Seashore State Park, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 42: 419-435.

Clark, D.A. and S. Ware. 1980. Upland hardwood forests of Pittsylvania County, Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 31: 28-32.

Clovis, J.F. 1968. The vegetation of Smith Island, Virginia. Castanea 33: 115-121.

Cole, A.M. and S.A. Ware. 1997. Forest vegetation, edaphic factors, and successional direction in the central Piedmont of Virginia. Castanea 62: 100-111.

Copenheaver, C.A., N.E. Fuhrman, L.S. Gellerstedt, and P.A. Gellerstedt. 2004. Tree encroachment in forest openings: A case study from Buffalo Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 69: 297-308.

Copenheaver, C.A., L.E. Grinter, J.H. Lorber, M.A. Neatrour, and M.P. Spinney. 2002. A dendroecological and dendroclimatic analysis of Pinus virginiana and Pinus rigida at two slope positions in the Virginia Piedmont. Castanea 67: 302-315.

Copenheaver, C.A., S.A. Predmore, D.N. Askamit. 2009. Conversion of rare grassy openings to forest: have these lost their conservation value? Natural Areas Journal 29: 133-139.

Coulling, P.P. 1999. Eastern hemlock inventory and assessment for Prince William Forest Park, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. 68 pp. plus appendices.

Coulling, P.P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. Unpublished report.

Coulling, P.P. and T.J. Rawinski. 1999. Classification of vegetation and ecological land units of the Piney River and Mt. Pleasant area, Pedlar Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-3. Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to USDA Forest Service.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/OBS-79/31. 103 pp.

Craig, A.J. 1969. Vegetational history of the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia. Geological Society of America Special Paper 123: 283-296.

Crouch, V.E. 1990. Floristic and vegetational studies in the College Woods. Unpublished master's thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia. 111pp.

Dabel, C.V. and F.P. Day, Jr. 1977. Structural comparisons of four plant communities in the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104: 352-360.

Day Jr., F.P. 1985. Tree growth rates in the periodically flooded Great Dismal Swamp. Castanea 50: 89-95.

DeBerry, D.A., and J.E. Perry. 2005. A drawdown flora in Virginia. Castanea 70: 276-286.

Dean, G.W. 1969. Forests and forestry in the Dismal Swamp. Virginia Journal of Science: 20: 166-173.

Delcourt, P.A. and H.R. Delcourt. 1993. Paleoclimates, paleovegetation, and paleofloras during the late Quaternary. Pages 71-94 in Flora of North America. Volume 1. Introduction. Oxford University Press, New York.

DeWitt, R. and S. Ware. 1979. Upland hardwood forests of the central Coastal Plain of Virginia. Castanea 44: 163-174.

Doumlele, D G., B.K. Fowler, and G.M. Silberhorn. 1985. Vegetative community structure of a tidal freshwater swamp in Virginia. Wetlands 4: 129-145.

Driscoll, R.S. , D.L. Merkel, D.L. Radloff, E.E. Snyder, and J.S. Hagihara. 1984. An ecological land classification framework for the United States. USDA Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication 1439, Washington, D.C. 56 pp.

Edinger, G.J., D.J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T.G. Howard, D.M. Hunt, and A.M. Olivero. 2002. Ecological communities of New York State. Second Edition. New York Natural Heritage Program, NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 97 pp.

Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. 1992-2002. ArcView GIS, version 3.2. ESRI, Redlands, California.

Eyre, F.H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, D.C. 148 pp.

Farrell, J.D. and S. Ware. 1991. Edaphic factors and forest vegetation in the Piedmont of Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 118:161-9.

Farrell, M.M. and S. Ware. 1988. Forest composition of the Southern Blue Ridge escarpment in Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 39: 250-257.

Fenneman, N.M. 1938. Physiography of the eastern United States. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 714 pp.

Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial & palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, The Nature Conservancy, and Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

Fleming, G.P. 1993. Floristics and preliminary classification of greenstone glade vegetation in Virginia (abstract). Virginia Journal of Science 44: 119.

Fleming, G.P. 1999. Plant communities of limestone, dolomite, and other calcareous substrates in the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-4, Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 218 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. 2002a. Preliminary classification of Piedmont and inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. Unpublished report.

Fleming, G.P. 2002b. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the Virginia Outdoors Foundation. 274 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Tech. Rep. 07-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report. 341 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. 2012. The nature of the Virginia flora. Pages 24-75 in A.S. Weakley, J.C. Ludwig, and J.F. Townsend. 2012. Flora of Virginia. Bland Crowder, ed. Foundation of the Flora of Virginia Project Inc., Richmond. Fort Worth: Botanical Research Institute of Texas Press.

Fleming, G.P., and P.P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia: preliminary classification and description of types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 372 pp.

Fleming, G.P. and W.H. Moorhead III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, VA. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 114 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. and W.H. Moorhead III. 1998. Comparative wetlands ecology study of the Great Dismal Swamp, Northwest River, and North Landing River in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-9, Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 181 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. and W.H. Moorhead III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peters Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07, Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. and K.D. Patterson. 2004. Natural community inventory of selected areas in the northern Virginia Culpeper Basin, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, and Culpeper Counties. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 21 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P. and K.D. Patterson. 2009. Classification of Natural Vegetation for the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (APPA), Southern Appalachian Section. Natural Heritage Technical Report 09-20. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

Fleming, G.P. and N.E. Van Alstine. 1999. Plant communities and floristic features of sinkhole ponds and seepage wetlands in southeastern Augusta County, Virginia. Banisteria, 13: 67-94.

Fleming, G.P. and J.T. Weber. 2003. Inventory, classification, and map of forested ecological communities at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 03-7. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. 101 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P., A. Belden Jr., K.E. Heffernan, A.C. Chazal, N.E. Van Alstine, and E.M Butler. 2007. A natural heritage inventory of the rock outcrops of Shenandoah National Park. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, Virginia. 433 pp. plus appendices.

Fleming, G.P., P.P. Coulling, D.P. Walton, K.M. McCoy, and M.R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: classification of ecological community groups. First Approximation. Nat. Heritage Tech. Rep. 01-1. Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Fleming, G.P., K.M. McCoy, and N.E. VanAlstine. 2001. The vascular flora of fire-maintained grasslands and woodlands at Quantico Marine Corps Base, Virginia. Banisteria 17: 3-19.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America. Volume 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. 475 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1997. Flora of North America. Volume 3. Magnoliophyta : Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae . Oxford University Press, New York. 590 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2000. Flora of North America. Volume 22. Magnoliophyta : Alismatidae , Arecidae , Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae . Oxford University Press, New York. 352 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America. Volume 23. Magnoliophyta : Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae . Oxford University Press, New York. 608 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002b. Flora of North America. Volume 26. Magnoliophyta : Liliidae : Liliales and Orchidales . Oxford University Press, New York. 723 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003a. Flora of North America. Volume 4. Magnoliophyta : Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America. Volume 25. Magnoliophyta : Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York. 783 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2005. Flora of North America. Volume 5. Magnoliophyta : Caryophyllidae, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York. 656 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006a. Flora of North America. Volume 19. Magnoliophyta : Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 579 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006b. Flora of North America. Volume 20. Magnoliophyta : Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae, part 2. Oxford University Press, New York. 666 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2006c. Flora of North America. Volume 21. Magnoliophyta : Asteridae (in part): Asteraceae, part 3. Oxford University Press, New York. 616 pp.

Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2007. Flora of North America. Volume 24. Magnoliophyta : Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 911 pp.

Focazio, M., C. Caljouw, G. Sperian, and T. Yanosky. 1998. Assessment of hydrologic relations of wetlands to surrounding areas in the North Landing River Natural Area Preserve. Natural Heritage Technical Report 98-15. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 23 pp.

Frost, C.C. 1995. Presettlement fire regimes in southeastern marshes, peatlands, and swamps. Pages 39-60 in S. I. Cerulean and R. T. Engstrom, eds. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference, No. 19. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

Frost, C.C. and L.J. Musselman. 1987. History and vegetation of the Blackwater Ecologic Preserve. Castanea 52: 16-46.

Frye, K. 1986. Roadside geology of Virginia. Mountain Press Publishing Company, Missoula, Montana. 278 pp.

Gemborys, S.R. 1974. The structure of hardwood forest ecosystems of Prince Edward County, Virginia. Ecology: 55: 614-21.

Glascock, S. and S. Ware. 1979. Forests of small stream bottoms in the Peninsula of Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 30: 17-21.

Golet, F.C., A.J.K. Calhoun, W.R. DeRagon, D.J. Lowry, and A.J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile. Biological Report 12, U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 151 pp.

Groeschl, D.A., Johnson, J.E., and D.W. Smith. 1992. Early vegetative response to wildfire in a table-mountain pine - pitch pine forest. International Journal of Wildland Fire 2: 177-184.

Grossman, D.H., D. Faber-Langendoen, A.S. Weakley, M. Anderson, P. Bourgeron, R. Crawford, K. Gooding, S. Landaal, K. Metzler, K.D. Patterson, M. Pyne, M. Reid, and L. Sneddon. 1998. International classification of ecological communities; terrestrial vegetation of the United States. Volume I. the national vegetation classification system: development, status, and applications. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia. 126 pp.

Hack, J.T. and J.C. Goodlett. 1960. Geomorphology and forest ecology of a mountain region in the Central Appalachians. Geological Survey Professional Paper 347, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Harrison, E.A., B.M. McIntyre, and R.D. Dueser. 1989. Community dynamics and topographic controls of forest pattern in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 116: 1-14.

Harvill Jr., A.M. 1967. The vegetation of Assateague Island, Virginia. Castanea 32: 105-108.

Hayden, B.P. 1979. Atlas of Virginia precipitation. University of Virginia Press, Charlottesville.

Helm, W.T. 1985. Glossary of stream habitat terms. American Fisheries Society. 33 pp.

Henderson, L.B., Jr. 1933. Plant ecology of a bog in the Virginia Piedmont. Randolph-Macon Woman's College Bulletin 20: 5-11.

Hull, J.C. and R.C. Scott. 1982. Plant succession on debris avalanches of Nelson County, Virginia. Castanea 47: 158-176.

Hunsucker, R. and R.F. Mueller. 1998. Folly Mills Calcareous Wetland, Augusta County, Virginia. Forests of the Central Appalachians Project. Virginians for Wilderness. http://www.asecular.com/forests/folly.htm

Hupp. C.R. 1982. Stream-grade variation and riparian forest ecology along Passage Creek, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109: 488-499.

Hupp, C.R. 1983a. Seedling establishment on a landslide site. Castanea 48: 89-98.

Hupp, C.R. 1983b. Vegetation pattern on channel features in the Passage Creek Gorge, Virginia. Castanea 48: 62-72.

Hupp, C.R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 113: 421-430.

Hupp, C.R. and W.R. Osterkamp. 1985. Bottomland vegetation distribution along Passage Creek, Virginia, in relation to fluvial landforms. Ecology 66: 670-681.

Jennings, M., O. Loucks, R. Peet, D. Faber-Langendoen, D. Glenn-Lewin, D. Grossman, A. Damman, M. Barbour, R. Pfister, M. Walker, S. Talbot, J. Walker, G. Hartshorn, G. Waggoner, M. Abrams, A. Hill, D. Roberts, D. Tart, and M. Rejmanek. 2003. Guidelines for describing associations and alliances of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Version 3.0. Ecological Society of America, Vegetation Classification Panel.

Johnson, C.W. 1985. Bogs of the northeast. University Press of New England, Hanover, New Hampshire. 269 pp.

Johnson, G.G. and S. Ware. 1982. Post-chestnut forests in the central Blue Ridge of Virginia. Castanea 47: 329-343.

Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First Edition. in : Kartesz, J.T. and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

Keener, C.S. 1983. Distribution and biohistory of the endemic flora of the Mid-Appalachian shale barrens. The Botanical Review 49: 65-115.

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Lawrence, D.M. 1991. Environmental threats to the health of montane forests of northwestern Virginia. Virginia Journal of Science 42: 381-389.

Lawrence, D.M., H.S. Adams, and S.L. Stephenson. 1999. Upland forest communities in the mid-Appalachian region of eastern North America. Pages 1-18 in Eckerlin, R.P., ed. Proceedings of the Appalachian Biogeography Symposium, Virginia Museum of Natural History Special Publication Number 7.

Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. Unpublished master's thesis. George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. 219 pp.

Leahey, M.J., C.J. Hutto, and P.A. Clarke. 2006. The composition and structure of woody vegetaton associated with piratebush, Buckleya distichophylla (Nutt.) Torr., on Poor Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 71: 31-44.

Levy, G.F. 1983. A study of vegetational dynamics on Parramore Island, Virginia. Castanea 48: 32-36.

Levy, G.F. and S.W. Walker. 1979. Forest dynamics in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia. Pages 101-126 in P.W. Kirk, ed. The Great Dismal Swamp. Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by Old Dominion University and United Virginia Bank-Seaboard National. The University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Lipscomb, M.V., and E.T. Nilson. 1990. Environmental and physiological factors influencing the natural distribution of evergreen and deciduous Ericaceous shrubs on northeast- and southwest-facing slopes of the southern Appalachian mountains. I. Irradiance tolerance. American Journal of Botany 77: 108-115.

Lipscomb, M.V., and E.T. Nilson. 1990. Environmental and physiological factors influencing the natural distribution of evergreen and deciduous Ericaceous shrubs on northeast- and southwest-facing slopes of the southern Appalachian mountains. II. Water relations. American Journal of Botany 77: 517-526.

Lorimer, C.G. 1984. Development of the red maple understory in northeastern oak forests. For. Science 30: 3-22.

Ludwig, J.C. 1996. Shoreline flora of the Blackwater River in Southampton and Isle of Wight Counties, Virginia. Banisteria 8: 44-46.

Ludwig, J.C. 1999. The flora of dolomite and limestone barrens in southwestern Virginia. Castanea 64: 209-230.

Madgwick, H.A.I. and P.A. Desrochers. 1972. Association-analysis and classification of forest vegetation on the Jefferson National Forest. Journal of Ecology 60: 285-292.

Martin, W.L., T.L. Sharik, R.G. Oderwald, and D.W. Smith. 1982. Phytomass: structural relationships for woody plant species in the understory of an Appalachian oak forest. Canadian Journal of Botany 60: 1923-1927.

Maxwell, H. 1910. The use and abuse of forests by the Virginia Indians. William and Mary College Quarterly Historical Magazine XIX: 73-103.

McAtee, W.L. 1918. A sketch of the natural history of the District of Columbia. Bull. Biol. Soc. of Washington 1. Washington, D.C.

McCormick, J.F. and R.B. Platt. 1980. Recovery of an Appalachian forest following the chestnut blight, or Catherine Keever - you were right! American Midland Naturalist 104: 264-273.

McCoy, K.M. and G.P. Fleming. 2000. Ecological communities of U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-08, Virginia Dept. of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 156 pp. plus appendices.

McCune, B. and M.J. Mefford. 1999. PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data. Version 4.27. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, Oregon.

McDonald, R.I., R.K. Peet, and D.L. Urban. 2002. Environmental correlates of oak decline and red maple increase in the North Carolina Piedmont. Castanea 67: 84-95.

McEvoy, T.J., T.L. Sharik, and D.W. Smith. 1980. Vegetative structure of an Appalachian oak forest in southwestern Virginia. American Midland Naturalist 103: 96-105.

McLaughlin, S.B., D.J. Downing, T.J. Blasing, E.R. Cook, and H. S. Adams. 1987. An analysis of climate and competition as contributors to decline of red spruce in high elevation Appalachian forests of the eastern United States. Oecologia 72: 487-501.

Megonigal, P.J. and A.K. Darke, plus collaborators. 2001. Critical components of hydrologic variability in tidal freshwater wetlands: hydrogeomorphology and vegetation of the Mattaponi River. George Mason University, Environmental Science and Public Policy Program. Unpublished report submitted to The Nature Conservancy. 59 pages.

Mitsch, W.J. and J.G. Gosselink. 1986. Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. 539 pp.

Monette, R. and S. Ware. 1983. Early forest succession in the Virginia Coastal Plain. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110: 80-86.

Moore, K. A., D. J. Wilcox, and R. J. Orth. 2000. Analysis of the abundance of submersed aquatic vegetation communities in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries 23: 115-127.

Moore, R.H. 1992. Low-salinity backbays and lagoons. Pages 541-613 in C.T. Hackney, S.M. Adams, and W.H. Martin. Biodiversity of the southeastern United States: aquatic communities. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Musselman, L.J. 1970. Plants of a mountain bog of southwestern Virginia. Castanea 35: 194-198.

NatureServe. 2003. A Working Classification of Terrestrial Ecological Systems in the Coterminous United States. International Terrestrial Ecological Systems Classification. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. + appendices ( http://www.natureserve.org/publications/usEcologicalsystems.jsp )

NatureServe. In prep. Vegetation classification and map of National Capital Region (NCR) national parks. USGS / NPS Vegetation Mapping Program.

Nemeth, J.C. 1973. A mountain disjunct hemlock stand in the piedmont of Virginia. Castanea 38: 171-175.

O'Byrne, J.W. 1922. The forests of Russell County, Virginia. Virginia Geological Survey: Bulletin 22: 151-173.

Ogle, D.W. 1981. Long-distance dispersal of vascular halophytes: the marshes of Saltville, Virginia. Castanea 46:8-15.

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